ISSN 1849-9031 (Online)

ISSN 1849-8922    (Print)

Muscle: An endocrine organ linking physical activity and development of chronic non-communicable diseases/diabetes mellitus.
Maja Cigrovski Berkovic, Ines Bilic-Curcic, Davorka Herman Mahecic, Lana Ruzic, Vjekoslav Cigrovski.


Sedentary lifestyle is one of the principal causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. Recently, muscles have been recognized as an important source of cytokines and myokines, molecules with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine function, and far-reaching effects. It has been postulated that muscles through cytokines can modulate low-grade chronic inflammation, a feature of non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, and therefore play an important role in disease postponement and successful treatment. Therefore, physical activity is an integral part of treatment guidelines for type 2 diabetes. Despite increasing evidence of anti-inflammatory effect of PA, much more research is needed to pinpoint the type and intensity of activity with the largest anti-inflammatory effect, as well as the type of patients which would benefit most from this approach, especially in terms of improvement of cardiovascular outcomes.