ISSN 1849-9031 (Online)

ISSN 1849-8922    (Print)

Treatment of early complications on eye fundus in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Iva Akmadža, Milan Vrkljan.


Early ocular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) mostly refer to non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Generally speaking, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and the most common cause of blindness between the age of 20 and 65. DM is a disease characterized by metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The main characteristic is hyperglycemia, which affects all organs by different pathogenetic pathways. The presence of DR is associated with the duration of DM, glycemic control and blood pressure. DR is a microangiopathy and is diagnosed by simple indirect ophthalmoscopy. It is very important to perform regular eye examinations in patients with DM, whereas DR is usually asymptomatic in the early stage of the disease. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the great importance in diagnostics of DR. Besides indirect ophthalmoscopy and OCT, fluorescein angiography and ultrasound are also widely used to diagnose DR. The prevention of the disease is most important, which is in domain of internal medicine specialist, diabetologist and general practitioner. Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy is the gold standard in treatment of NPDR associated with diabetic macular edema (DME) and impaired vision. Intravitreal injections of corticosteroids and laser photocoagulation are also used. The current and future treatment modalities are presented in the text that follows.